Information Modeling, sometimes referred to just as Data Modeling, is an approach to modeling concepts in problems or systems, in terms of data and data relationships, typically within a relational database model.
It is better known through its main modeling tool – the Entity-Relationship Diagram. It is also sometimes referred to as Semantic Data Modeling.
There are two strategies used to model real world problems and systems in this approach. The modern one prescribes finding objects in the real world (referred to as Entities) and describing their attributes, before adding relationships, refining super/subtypes, associative objects and then normalizing.